# Python Slice notation, how to use it with some usability examples?

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asked Apr 28, 2019

I have been trying to work with the slice notation in python and although it seems to be very powerful I am facing some issues with the usability of it like how to use it with String and lists etc.

I need some general explanation with examples and a plus if some quality link is provided.

answered Feb 5, 2020 by (783 points)
selected Apr 11

We basic of python slice notation can be summarized in just few lines as mentioned below..

``````a[start:stop]      # items start through stop-1
a[start:]          # items start through the rest of the array
a[:stop]           # items from the beginning through stop-1
a[:]               # a copy of the whole array
a[start:stop:step] # start through not past stop, by step
``````

The key point to remember is that the :stop value represents the first value that is not in the selected slice. So, the difference between stop and start is the number of elements selected (if step is 1, the default).

Next important point is abnout the negative numbers i.e what if the start or stop may be a negative number, which means it counts from the end of the array instead of the beginning. So:

``````a[-1]    # last item in the array
a[-2:]   # last two items in the array
a[:-2]   # everything except the last two items
``````

Similarly, step may be a negative number:

``````a[::-1]    # all items in the array, reversed
a[1::-1]   # the first two items, reversed
a[:-3:-1]  # the last two items, reversed
a[-3::-1]  # everything except the last two items, reversed
``````

No errors are thrown if it is numbers put are not in the range.. i.e.

``````a=[1,2,3]
a[:-5]       # just return an empty([]) array instead of an error
a[10::-1]    # return [3,2,1]
``````

It will give you the best possible outcome or empty if not possible but if you expect error then be aware of this situation

## Relation to slice() object

The slicing operator [] is actually being used in the above code with a slice() object using the : notation (which is only valid within []), i.e.:

a[start:stop:step] is equivalent to: a[slice(start, stop, step)]

Slice objects also behave slightly differently depending on the number of arguments, similarly to range(), i.e. both slice(stop) and slice(start, stop[, step]) are supported. To skip specifying a given argument, one might use None, so that e.g. a[start:] is equivalent to a[slice(start, None)] or a[::-1] is equivalent to a[slice(None, None, -1)].