Junit5 Test Lifecycle @BeforeAll @BeforeEach @AfterAll @AfterEach

In this article, we will discuss the lifecycle of a Test in JUnit5, what all the important annotations are, their meaning, and how we can use them to write unit tests.

1. Annotations

NoteWhen we use the term ‘test method’ in the following headings it refers to all the methods annotated with @Test, @RepeatedTest, @ParameterizedTest, or @TestFactory


2. @Test

This annotation marks a method as a test method. There are other annotations as well like @RepeatedTest, @ParameterizedTest, or @TestFactory in case we want additional functionality.
In JUnit5 this annotation does not accept any arguments.

Let see how test methods look like

@Test
void testMethod() {
  System.out.println("@Test method executed");
}

@ParameterizedTest
@ValueSource(ints = {1,2})
void testParameterizedMethod(int number) {
  System.out.println("@ParameterizedTest executed with number " + number);
}

@RepeatedTest(2)
void repeatedTestExample() {
  System.out.println("@RepeatedTest");
}

3. @BeforeEach

This method is executed before each test method. This is used to ensure we have clean data(for eg. setting up mocks) for each test case and is not updated by any other already executed @Test method.

Let see how @BeforeEach method look like

@BeforeEach
void runBeforeEveryTest() {
  System.out.println("@BeforeEach executed");
}

4. @AfterEach

This method is executed after each test method. This is generally used to clean up the data or to perform an action after a @Test method.

If it is just a cleanup of data then sometimes it is can also be done in @BeforeEach method.

Let see how @AfterEach method look like

@AfterEach
void runAfterEveryTest() {
  System.out.println("@AfterEach executed \n");
}

5. @BeforeAll

@BeforeAll runs only once before all the test methods of a Test class.

Sometimes there are heavy operations like setting up a Database connection or spinning up an embedded server etc which should be done only once for a test class.

Let see how @BeforeAll method look like

@BeforeAll
static void runOnceBeforeAllTests() {
  System.out.println("@BeforeAll executed \n");
}

6. @AfterAll

@AfterAll runs only once after all the test methods of a Test class.

Mostly the setup that is done in @BeforeAll method also needs to be cleaned up like closing the Database connection or shutting down the embedded server etc which is generally done only once for a test class.

Let see how @AfterAll method look like

@AfterAll
static void runOnceAfterAllTests() {
  System.out.println("@AfterAll executed");
}

7. JUnit5 test lifecycle Sample

So let’s go through a full sample and see how all the annotations we have discussed above run and in which order

package com.codingeek;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.function.ThrowingConsumer;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.ParameterizedTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.ValueSource;

import java.util.function.Function;
import java.util.stream.Stream;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.*;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.DynamicContainer.dynamicContainer;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.DynamicTest.dynamicTest;

class LifecycleSampleTest {

  @BeforeAll
  static void runOnceBeforeAllTests() {
    System.out.println("@BeforeAll executed \n");
  }

  @BeforeEach
  void runBeforeEveryTest() {
    System.out.println("@BeforeEach executed");
  }

  @Test
  void testMethod() {
    System.out.println("@Test method executed");
  }

  @ParameterizedTest
  @ValueSource(ints = {1, 2})
  void testParameterizedMethod(int number) {
    System.out.println("@ParameterizedTest executed with number " + number);
  }

  @RepeatedTest(2)
  void repeatedTestExample() {
    System.out.println("@RepeatedTest");
  }

  @AfterEach
  void runAfterEveryTest() {
    System.out.println("@AfterEach executed \n");
  }

  @AfterAll
  static void runOnceAfterAllTests() {
    System.out.println("@AfterAll executed");
  }
}

In the following output we how @BeforeEach and @AfterEach is related to an execution of a test method and @BeforeAll and @AfterAll is related to the execution of a test class

Output:-
@BeforeAll executed 

@BeforeEach executed
@RepeatedTest
@AfterEach executed 

@BeforeEach executed
@RepeatedTest
@AfterEach executed 

@BeforeEach executed
@ParameterizedTest executed with number 1
@AfterEach executed 

@BeforeEach executed
@ParameterizedTest executed with number 2
@AfterEach executed 

@BeforeEach executed
@Test method executed
@AfterEach executed 

@AfterAll executed


8. JUnit4 @BeforeClass and @Before

@BeforeClass and @Before annotation until JUnit4 are the same as @BeforeAll and @BeforeEach from JUnit5. These annotations are renamed to have clear naming and to avoid ambiguity.

Let’s rewrite the methods written above to use the JUnit4 annotations.

//@BeforeEach
@Before
void runBeforeEveryTest() {
  System.out.println("@Before executed");
}

//@BeforeAll
@BeforeClass
static void runOnceBeforeAllTests() {
  System.out.println("@BeforeClass executed \n");
}

9. JUnit4 @AfterClass and @After

Similar to the previous ones @AfterClass and @After annotation until JUnit4 are the same as @AfterAll and @AfterEach from JUnit5.

Let’s rewrite the methods written above to use the JUnit4 annotations.

//@AfterEach
@After
void runAfterEveryTest() {
  System.out.println("@After executed \n");
}

//@AfterAll
@AfterClass
static void runOnceAfterAllTests() {
  System.out.println("@AfterClass executed");
}

10. Conclusion

In this JUnit 5 tutorial, we have learned that by using some of the basic annotations @Test, @BeforeEach, @AfterEach, @BeforeAll, @AfterAll we can cover the basic test requirements.

We also learned how JUnit5 annotations are different from JUnit4 annotations like @AfterClass, @After, @BeforeClass, and @Before.

Complete code samples can be found on Github project.

An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. I hope you like the tutorial. Do come back for more because learning paves way for a better understanding.
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Happy coding!! 😊

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